I'm not going to get plastic surgery. Operability, usefulness, and task technology fit for mHealth application to deliver primary healthcare services by community health workers in underserved areas of Pakistan & Afghanistan (Preprint). Focus group discussion facilitated the examination of socio‐cultural impacts and gender‐based constraints and roles in conservation (54; 66; 85; 24; 4; 1). The number of participants per focus group ranged from 2 to 21 with a median of 10 participants. There are no guidelines for best practice for the application of the technique in conservation literature. STEM education for pre-service teacher: why and how?. Beyond cost and carbon: The multidimensional co-benefits of low carbon transitions in Europe. Finally, we used concept mapping, or a visual display illustrating relationships between and among categories (Miles & Huberman, 1994) to combine theme attributes into main themes without losing individuality, trivialising some concepts over others, or losing detail (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Focus group discussion was used to examine impacts of conservation management interventions. Using photography to explore people with diabetes’ perspectives on food environments in urban and rural South Africa. Learning to prescribe and instruct exercise in physiotherapy education through authentic continuous assessment and rubrics. We reviewed the list to identify theme attributes (e.g. Chapter 11 attempts to get thestudents to think about overall approaches and procedures that improve problemsolving. It commands 10 to 15 percent weightage in MBA admission in top MBA colleges. Land cover changes and carbon storage before and after community forestry program in Bleberan village, Gunungkidul, Indonesia, 1999–2018. Conversations about health—Sharing the personal experiences of women with intellectual disabilities. Gorden (1980) outlines four non‐verbal communication data sources based on participants’ behaviour reflected by body displacements and postures (kinesics); use of interpersonal space to communicate attitudes (proxemics); temporal speech markers such as gaps, silences, and hesitations (chronemics); and variations in volume, pitch and quality of voice (paralinguistic). One potential drawback in focus group discussion is the lack of guarantee that all those recruited will attend the discussion. Our field experiences point to the fact that such dynamics and the process of sharing and comparing understandings and views mean that the focus group discussion can yield more insights than the equivalent number of individual interviews. Understanding the food-family relationship: A qualitative research in a Chilean low socioeconomic context. The most common theme related to the understanding of people's perspectives regarding conservation (32%, n = 54), followed by the assessment of conservation and livelihoods practices (21%, n = 35), examination of challenges and impacts of resource management interventions (19%, n = 33) and documenting the value of indigenous knowledge systems (16%, n = 28). Our experiences in using the technique indicate that restricting participants to the topic of researcher's interest constraints creativity and encourages conformity and strategic biases. This can lead to convenience sampling by selecting participants based on their accessibility (Krueger, 1994) easily leading to “volunteer bias” (1960; 1963). ( 1998 ) and Litosseliti ( 2004 ), the facilitator must have a set of skills and techniques to ensure that the issues under discussion are addressed comprehensively. Focus groups were instrumental in exploring the convergence of traditional knowledge and conventional scientific knowledge particularly in the management and conservation of fisheries (26). Our review showed that a range of topics ranging from community participation in natural resource management and governance, human‐wildlife conflict mitigation, to indigenous ecological knowledge systems had been investigated using focus group discussion. These topics are summarized with a conclusion and related facts. This process can yield quantitative results to draw comparisons across focus groups, group dynamics, individual participants or the participants’ statements (Carey & Smith, 1994; Morgan, 1995). Staying on top of latest group discussion topics in advance and a little bit of preparation can go a long way in helping you perform well in your GD round. Furthermore, focus group discussions were used in the assessment of various livelihoods activities such as hunting, agriculture, natural resource extraction and consumption (234; 208; 113). The next step is to identify a convenient venue for the discussion. Opinions of key stakeholders on alternative interventions for malaria control and elimination in Tanzania. 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Focus group discussion was mainly used to explore people's understanding, interpretation and legitimisation of biodiversity management initiatives and levels of support for such initiatives such as deer management, coastal resources management, the discourse around national parks and relationships with park authorities (242; 184; 177; 86; 29). Focus Groups as a Tool for Conducting Participatory Research: A Case Study of Small-Scale Forest Management in Slovenia. The technique emerged as a qualitative data collection approach and a bridging strategy for scientific research and local knowledge (Cornwall & Jewkes, 1995). The value of focus group discussions can be seen in researching communities with high mobility and hence the difficulty in sampling and organising meetings in specific locations. Participants are likely to suffer from fatigue when discussions are longer. However, we observed that the majority of the reviewed papers did not report their sampling and participant recruitment procedures. However, homogeneity is challenged by some researchers since unfamiliar participants can give honest and spontaneous views and can overcome pre‐existing relationships and patterns of leadership in the group (Thomas et al., 1995). Perceptions of the role of traditional and social media in communicating corruption. Here we assess the strength and weaknesses of the focus group discussion technique based on a review of its application in conservation in the last two decades. 18). The majority of studies used face‐to‐face approach (n = 168), whereas one study used the online approach and another used a combination of face‐to‐face and online approach. From being an outlier and on the sidelines of the discourse on conservation, the importance of understanding human perspectives is now centre stage in conservation decision making (Bennett et al., 2017; Khadka, Hujala, Wolfslehner, & Vacik, 2013; Paloniemi et al., 2012). Our primary aim was to understand how focus group discussion has been used as a methodological tool in conservation in the last 20 years. Understanding people's perceptions are central to establishing how and why people respond to conservation issues in a certain way. The principle of theoretical saturation, where focus group discussion sessions are run until a clear pattern emerges and subsequent groups produce no new information (Krueger, 1994) has been applied for studies covering larger study areas, wider interest groups and complex topics. Ensure a clear pathway between the data obtained, coding and subsequent analysis of data: The review revealed that 144 out of 170 studies used focus group discussion alongside other techniques in the same study. However, the use of local contacts has been criticised for its dependence on the availability, willingness and accessibility of the local contact and the loss of control and direction of the researcher in the recruitment process. However, this setup can also be a disadvantage since the group is not conducted in a natural atmosphere or where the researcher is not located close to the study site. Either way, this quiz on Spanish words It is applied within the online environment, using conference calling, chat rooms or other online means (Kamberelis & Dimitriadis, 2005). Attention should be drawn to recurring ideas and wider themes connecting the codes (Charmaz, 2006; Krueger, 1994; Ritchie & Spencer, 1994). In addition, focus groups were used to evaluate people's participation in conservation‐related civic organisations, forest, and protected area conservation activities (230; 192; 27; 10). Money > Fame Causes and Effects of the Division Algorithm Applied in Ecuadorian Education. Why we fail: Stakeholders' perceptions of the social and ecological barriers to reforestation in southern Malawi. The versatility and ease of use of the technique is demonstrated by the fact that it has been used in a range of contexts and in combination with other techniques. In such situations, participants may not discuss their feelings and opinions freely or hesitate to participate in the topic of interest to the researcher. In most cases, the range of topics that participants feel comfortable discussing may not be what the researcher intends to explore. Socio-ecological influences of adolescence marijuana use initiation: Qualitative evidence from two illicit marijuana-growing communities in South Africa. In most of the studies we reviewed, participants were collected in one location and were prepared in advance for the discussion around a topic rather than meeting them in their usual places of work or residence. Latest group discussion topics with answers for fresh job seekers who are about to attend GD round in recruitment interviews. Such groups are usually made up of individuals with high level of expertise (Hague, 2002). 61; 116). Group Discussion: Very Important in Final Selection GD round is a favourite component of final selection round not only in top MBA colleges but also in various recruitment process like class 1 and 2 services, SSB, bank officers’ recruitment services among others. However, the use of focus group discussion technique is not recommended when there is a risk of raising participants’ expectations that cannot be fulfilled or where “strategic” group biases are anticipated (Harrison et al., 2015). The composition of the group will depend on the main aim of the research. Personally, I couldn't care less about being famous. However, the majority (84%, n = 143) did not report duration. In addition, focus group discussion provided insights into the variations in nature constructions based on age and location, for instance between younger and older people living in rural and urban areas (240). Focus group discussion usually yields both qualitative and observational data where analyses can be demanding. Geographic proximity is an important consideration for researchers with resources constraints in developing nations. [3] X Trustworthy Source Kansas University Center for Community Health and Development Community-based research center focused on supporting public health … Focus group discussion requires a team consisting of a skilled facilitator and an assistant (Burrows & Kendall, 1997; Krueger, 1994). According to Krueger and Casey (2000), individual's self‐disclosure tends to be natural and comfortable. Furthermore, evidence suggests that mixed gender groups tend to improve the quality of discussions and its outcomes (Freitas, Oliveira, Jenkins, & Popjoy, 1998). In addition, most of the studies were based in rural communities within the developing countries with limited infrastructure for online access. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology. In addition, they should be in a normal and familiar setting with sufficient space for different activities within the focus group discussion, such as examination of samples, ranking activities, and exercises. In most of these studies, it was extremely difficult to tease out what component of the results and inferences were derived from the focus group discussion alone. Gunungkidul, Indonesia, 1999–2018 capital and real-world learning N1 7GS at the end-of-life among with! 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