In the case of chronic conditions, the skin thickens and may become leathery due to longterm scratching, which may cause infection. Nerve endings on the skin help in sensing touch, pressure, heat, cold as well as the nature and intensity of damaging stimuli. integumentary: [ in-teg″u-men´tar-e ] 1. pertaining to or composed of skin. This layer also cushions underlying tissues and protects them from desiccation. The average body temperature is maintained by the action of sweat glands as well as the hair on the skin of mammals. Similarly, extended exposure to water during baths or during swimming, crinkles the skin since water is absorbed and retained in the epidermis. There is no direct blood supply to the epidermis and therefore, the cells of this stratified squamous tissue obtain nutrients and oxygen through diffusion. This phase lasts until anagen initiating signals from the dermal papilla stimulates the hair germ to show enhanced proliferative and transcriptional activity, leading to the initiation of anagen. Pearson Education, Inc. Kotpal RL(2010). The dermis also plays host to sweat glands. Some of the common epidermal glands found in humans and other mammals are: Image Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Biology is the study of living things. The sweat glands consist of a secretory unit called a glomerulus and a long duct that takes the sweat to the target surfaces. The outermost layer is called the stratum corneum and is directly exposed to the external environment. DOI: Yamaguchi, Y., & Hearing, V. J. These derivatives are termed appendages of the skin and are formed form derived epidermal cells. The integument delimits the body of the organism, separating it from the environment and protecting it from foreign matter. Integumentary definition is - of or relating to an enveloping or external layer or covering (as of skin, hair, scales, feathers, or cuticle) of an organism or one of its parts; especially : of, relating to, or affecting the skin : cutaneous. Image Source: Blausen.com staff (2014). The number of these glands is higher in the scalp, face, axillae, and groins. Integumentary is especially used in the term integumentary system to refer to the system of the human body that includes the skin and related things like hair and nails. Besides, the epithelium also contains few cells like melanocytes which are responsible for the pigmentation on the skin. Title. In humans, it is also called skin. Together, these two layers form the largest organ in the body, with a surface area of nearly 2 square meters. The sebaceous gland consists of secretory epithelial cells derived from the same tissue as the hair follicles. The parts of the skin that have no hair follicles have an extra layer of epithelium called the stratum lucidum that is sandwiched between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum. Biology Form Four. Covers entire surface of the body. Churchill Livingstone. Ciliary glands in eyelashes and along margins of eyelids are modified sweat glands. Marieb EN and Hoehn K. (2013) Human Anatomy and Physiology. They may cover the entire body or may be reduced to patches or scattered hairs. Integumentary System. These are true holocrine glands, in that a gland in which the secretion is formed by the degeneration of the entire glandular cell. Definition of Nervous system and Nerve Fibers. These are finger-like projections into the epidermis and, on the palms, form fingerprints. Head and neck pathology, 12(3), 350–361. Characteristic of mammals, these are compound tubular glands that produce milk during lactation period for feeding the young ones. Integumentary System definition The integumentary system is a system comprised of organs that are the outermost protective covering of the animal body, the skin, and its various derivatives. (biology) An outer protective covering such as the feathers or skin of an animal, a rind or shell. integumentary system - the skin and its appendages. The cell growth occurs mostly in the germinal matrix in the nail bed. The skin can also be subjected to genetic disorders like psoriasis or albinism. The mildly acidic nature of skin secretions also contributes towards preventing pathogenic colonization. Dermis also provides support to the epidermis and allows the base for the cells. A. The gland is lined by a layer of secretory cells present on the myoepithelial cells. Ninth Edition. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder and albinism arises from a complete lack of pigments on the skin. Integumentary System Definition The integumentary system is the set of organs that forms the external covering of the body and protects it from many threats such as infection, desiccation, abrasion, chemical assault and radiation damage.. integument covering or investing layer Source: Noland, George B. The second major section of the integument is the dermis, and is occasionally called the ‘true skin’ since it is supplied with blood vessels and nerve endings. It consists of multiple layers of terminally differentiated keratinocytes that are also called corneocytes. Learn how your comment data is processed. The soles of the feet are free from sebaceous glands, though the sections of skin between the toes is richly supplied with these structures. An appetite-regulating hormone called leptin is also synthesized by fat cells in the hypodermis layer. This system fights infection and includes lymphatic vessels which permeate the body. 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